Afghanistan: Killing Harvests of U. Of Nebraska and UNOCAL.

My laptop runs very slowly. Regularly at intervals it is busy, as shown by hard-disk indicator, doing something, which I have not asked of it. I thought some “spring cleaning” of the hard-disk would help speed it up. I was about to delete one large folder of documents but mercifully thought of taking a second look at some of them. Very recently I had run into a controversy on one forum for “falsifying facts”.  Though I had cracked the accusation through long, patient Google search, here were two documents that beefed up my case incredibly well. The folder contained documents I had created using an extremely powerful search engine called Lexis Nexis[LN]. It is an expensive paid service, but I had got a free trial for a week to “test its suitability” in my “research work”. It was through reading of the incisive forensic analysis by Illarion Bykov and Jared Israel of the evidence in the public domain immediately after 9/11 that I came to know of LN, which was used by the duo to hunt down needed references. I had used LN to research the “CIA’s Jihadi school textbooks for Afghanistan” story by Jared Israel. Jared Israel too holds that US has used and nurtured Salafi/ Wahabi strain of violent “Jihad” and turned it into a monster stretching from Afghanistan to Middle East to Northern Africa. But he abruptly part ways with those who hold it is done to destabilize regions, whose natural resources US wants to control;  and to the contrary holds its ultimate aim is to destroy Israel and Jews. I thanked my luck for not destroying such valuable resource and decided to put as much of this evidence on the net for anyone to access and judge for herself what is the truth.
Few people are aware that back in the 80s when Ronald Reagan was the president, USAID commissioned Center for Afghan Studiesat University of Nebraska, Omaha, to prepare and print schoolbooks for shipment to Afghanistan via Pakistan. What sounded like a “noble project” had a problem, a huge problem in fact. The textbooks were to teach extreme Salafi/ Wahabi Jihadist strain of Islam to young, immature kids and prepare them for violent, bloody actions aimed at “enemies” of Islam.
That “enemy of Islam” in those days was Soviet Union, which had sent its army to support the Afghan government. USAID was acting on behalf of CIA, which was running a covert operation inside Afghanistan against the “infidel” Soviets in cooperation with ISI of Pakistan and Saudi Arabian ally and agent, Osama Bin Laden. Interestingly, almost the same books were shipped again in 2002 after George W Bush had heavily bombed Afghanistan after accusing Osama Bin Laden for 9/11 without any evidence and Taliban for “harbouring” him. Washington Post [WP] carried a report by Joe Stephens and David B. Ottaway on it on 23rd March 2002. The link to that article, which I had given in my post, I was told no longer works, and I was accused of falsifying facts. When I checked to my horror I found the link lands only on the main page of WP website. Search on the site proved futile. Had that article been scrubbed clean? With great difficulty I found an archived copy of WP page that gives only the synopsis and says the whole article is behind the paywall. However, the references I am now going to share not only independently corroborate “school textbook project of CIA”, but also provide the “Economic Rationale” behind the October 2001 attack on Afghanistan. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the US corporations began to salivate at the thought of controlling huge gas reserves of Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. The problem was these Republics are landlocked, and worse are sandwiched between Russia and China, both considered arch enemies of US interests. The only “escape route under US control” for Central Asian gas lay to the south through Afghanistan. By 1996, Taliban held Kabul and much of Afghanistan. A consortium led by UNOCAL, a US oil company, was ready to do business with [terrorist] Taliban as was the [competing] Argentinian company BRIDAS Corporation. Unfortunately, Afghanistan remained unsettled with fractious warlords constantly fighting over booty and changing loyalties to alliances. Also, Northern Alliance controlling north Afghanistan was at odds with Taliban. Unocal Vice President, Maresca, testified in 1998, before the Congressional committee concerning its pipeline project, “It’s not going to be built until there is a single Afghan government”. “Single” is the key here. Clinton was urged “to help” form that “single Afghan government”. He refused to bite the bullet except firing some cruise missiles at Afghanistan for alleged Al Qaeda attack on USS Cole and bombing of two US embassies in the Horn of Africa. Bush becoming President in 2001 changed all that. Closely aligned to Oil and Gas interests, He undertook the “unification of authority” in Afghanistan. The plan to attack Afghanistan was finalized in February of 2001, much before 9/11 happened as Time Magazine reported on 12th August 2002: “They [USA/UK] had a plan; long before 9/11”. All this should change our understanding of world events since 2001 nourished on the “mythology” created by US and Western Governments, and dutifully spread by Main Stream media.
On the dusty plains of Afghanistan, a surprising number of people are said to know the word “Nebraska.” It began as a fluke in the early 1970s, when administrators at the University of Nebraska at Omaha launched the Center for Afghanistan Studies. As Afghanistan became a central battleground in the Cold War and then in the war against terrorism, the center — and its gregarious, well-connected director, Thomas Gouttierre — were fortuitously poised.
I don’t think the University of Nebraska has any business teaching kids anywhere in the world how to be killers,” said Paul Olson, president of Nebraskans for Peace, an activist group that has been calling on the university to close the center for the last decade. As evidence, Olson points to the center’s $60-million contract with the U.S. government in the 1980s to educate Afghan refugees who were living in Pakistan during the Soviet occupation. It printed millions of textbooks that featured material developed by the mujahedin resistance groups — including images of machine guns and calls for jihad against the Soviets.
Source: Byline, Kate Linthicum, Los Angeles Times, March 28, 2010, Sunday, Home Edition.
A similar effort to develop appropriate educational curricula in Afghanistan, spearheaded by UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), also ended in complete disaster when USAID pulled rank with Afghan officials to keep books developed by the University of Nebraska in the 1980s in Afghan schools. The Nebraska books were not very effective for student learning, filled as they were with militaristic images.
BYLINE: Torstrick, Rebecca, Professor of Anthropology, Indiana University South Bend, Review of CULTURE-Simple Gestures: A Cultural Journey into the Middle East, by Andrea B. Rugh. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc., 2009.
During the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the US established a covert operation in Afghanistan code named `BearTrap’. This anti-Soviet operation established a base in Afghanistan jointly funded by the US and SaudiArabia—and run by the CIA and Pakistan’s ISI. The ISI component was headed by Osama bin Laden. The purpose of this base, known as al Qaeda –al Qaeda is literally `the base’— was to provide arms and training to warlords and Islamic fundamentalists that later became the Mujaheddin or holy warriors.
In August 1996, Unocal led the formation of Central Asia Gas Pipe line Ltd (Centgas). Unocal invited Taliban leaders to Texas to finalise the Centgas project. The Telegraph reported on December 14, 1997, “Oil barons court Taliban in Texas”. By 1998, Unocal were concerned that the Taliban only had partial control in Afghanistan and there was continuing conflict. On February 12, 1998, John Maresca, vice president of international relations for Unocal, testified before the US House of Representatives Committee on International Relations about the Centgas project. He told the committee: It’s not going to be built until there is a single Afghan government. That’s the simple answer.”
On October 7, 2001, US and UK forces commenced their attack on Afghanistan. However, the US planned an invasion of Afghanistan before the events of 9/11.The Guardian reported on September22, 2001, “Threat of US strikes passed to Taliban weeks before New York attack”. Time magazine reported on August 12, 2002, “They [USA/UK] had a plan; long before 9/11”.US and Northern Alliance forces took control in Kabul in November 2001 and former Unocal staffer, Hamid Karzai, was installed to head an interim Afghanistan Government.With war still raging, on December 27, 2002, Karzai signed an agreement for a $5 billion trans-Afghanistan pipeline.
Reuters reported on September 22, 2010, “Afghanistan says confident can secure TAPI gas pipeline through the Taliban heart land”. The US and NATO forces now believe they have control from the Turkmenistan border through to Kandahar in Afghanistan. However, much of Kandahar and Oruzgan Provinces, and the Hada Mountains where the pipeline must pass, is still under defacto Taliban rule… Dexter Filkins, of the New York Times, reported October 20, 2010: “Taliban leaders of this region have been escorted to Kabul, under guarantees of safe conduct, for discussions with US Command.
Why the US is in Afghanistan… It’s all about the oil Geelong Advertiser (Australia) April1, 2011 Friday, by ALLAN SARGENT, Research officer for the late Senator C. G. Primmer, senator 1971-85, member Senate Committee Foreign Affairs and Defence.
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